HOW TO SOLVE QUESTIONS ON BLOOD RELATIONS?


This type of problems involves an analysis of certain blood relations and then deriving inferences on the basis of the given information. Some examples of such questions are as follows.
a) Anupam said to Kapil, “That girl playing with hockey is the younger of the two sisters of the son of my father’s wife”. How is the girl playing hockey related to Anupam?
b) Sudha sees a photograph and points at a man in the photograph and says, “His brother’s father is the only son of my grandfather”. How is Sudha related to the man in the photograph?

In such questions the examiners generally try to assess the aptitude of the examinee regarding analyzing various relationships. Since in this case, generally the questions are to be solved by analyzing and visualizing the relationships, it is very much helpful in gauging the examinee’s visualization in a limited time. The best possible technique to solve such questions has been given in the coming pages. If you are not able to decide the relationship, put yourself in the question (in the place of the person who is making the statement) and then try to find the answer. 


Backtracking means starting with the last information and proceeding backwards. For example, if it is given that he is the son of the mother of my grandfather’s daughter, then we proceed with the last information:‘grandfather’s daughter’. Grandfather’s daughter means aunt (sister of father).Now ‘mother of my grandfather’s daughter’ becomes ‘mother of my aunt’. Mother of my aunt is my grandmother. Hence, he is the son of the mother of my grandfather’s daughter becomes ‘son of my grandmother’, which is father or uncle.

Asin the above given question a) Anupam says to Kapil, ‘my father’s wife’, meansmother, her son (either yourself or your brother, his two sisters (means yoursisters), so the girl playing with hockey is Anupam’s sister.

b)Sudha says in the end, only son of my grandfather which means father only, heis the father of a man’s brother means father of Sudha’s brother. So Sudha issister of the man in the photograph.

Letus have some more examples to gain clarity about this idea.


Example No. 1: Pointing to aphotograph, Rajesh said, “she is the mother of my mother’s mother’s daughter”.How is Rajesh related to the woman in the photograph?
Solution: My mother’s mother’sdaughter means either my mother or my mother’s sister. Mother of my mother ormy mother’s sister means my maternal grandmother. Therefore the man is thematernal grandson of the woman in the photograph.

Example No. 2: Pointing to a boy inthe photograph, Minakshi said, “His sister is the only daughter of my father”.How is the boy related to Minakshi’s father?
Solution: My father’s onlydaughter means Minakshi herself. She is the sister of the boy in the photograph.This means the boy is the brother of Minakshi. Therefore he is the son ofMinakshi’s father.

Example No. 3
: Introducing Madhuri,Anil said, “She is the wife of my mother’s only son”. How is Madhuri related toAnil?

Solution: My mother’s only sonmeans Anil himself. Now Madhuri is the wife of that person, means she is thewife of Anil.  
Example No. 4: Pointing to Kajol,Ajay said, “Her mother’s only daughter is my mother”. How is Ajay related toKajol?
Solution: Here in this statementAjay’s mother is the only daughter of his maternal grandmother.

Hismaternal grandmother is the mother of Kajol (because Ajay points to Kajol andsays her mother - means Kajol is Ajay’s mother.

Example No. 5: Rahul said to Raveena,“Your only brother’s sister is my mother”. How Raveena is related to Rahul’smaternal grandmother?
Solution: Here the statementends with my mother, means Rahul’s mother and she is the sister of Rahul’smaternal uncle (mama) and he is the only brother of Raveena, means eitherRaveena is Rahul’s mother or maternal aunt (maasi).Now the question is how Raveena is related to Rahul’s maternal grandmother. Itcan be clearly identified that she is the daughter of Rahul’s maternalgrandmother.
Note: Unless otherwise mentioned, all blood relationsare to be taken from the paternal (father’s) point of view i.e. if grandfatherhas been mentioned it would be taken as father’s father and not as mother’sfather unless maternal grandfather is mentioned.

Thistechnique of backtracking is applied in such questions where a single statementis given. But sometimes there are questions in which the information isprovided in the form of points. Then it is advisable to arrange the informationin the form of a family tree.
 The following rules can be kept inmind, to solve the questions relating to relation in an easy way.
a)  Verticalor diagonal lines should be used to represent parent-child relationships i.e.if the generations are different, these should be represented vertically.
b)  Ifthe relationship is of the same generation, it should be representedhorizontally.
c)  Asingle arrow should be used to mark a relationship of brother or sister i.e.
d)  Adouble horizontal line (like Û) should be used to represent marriages.
e)  Puta + sign before someone who is a male and a – sign before someone who is afemale.
f)   Wheneversomething is not known put a ? mark or some such symbol before it.

Here is an illustration:
Theabove example tells us that:
(i)    Y and Z are a couple; Yis the husband while Z is the wife.
(ii)    Y has a sister X.
(iii)    The couple, Y and Z, hasthree children: T, P and another son, whose name is not known. P is also sonwhile the sex of T is not known.
(iv)    T and the other unknownson are unmarried while P is married to Q.
(v)     The couple, P & Q,has a daughter J and a son whose name is not known.


Given the process, how to solve such questionsquickly?
1.   Read the informationgiven quickly, it will give you the idea of the problem.
2.   Use the actualinformation given to make a family tree. It is better to start from therelation of a single degree i.e. no third person is involved in that. Therelation should be a direct one, instead of taking uncle and nephew, it isbetter to take father and son or brother and sister.
3.   When you start making thetree, try to attach the further information given to the tree already madeonly.
4.   Then combined all theinformation and answer the questions accordingly.


Example No. 6: P is brother of Q, R is sister of Q. How P isrelated to R?
Solution:

Itcan be clearly seen that P is the brother of R.

Example No. 7: X and Y are brothers.C and D are sisters. A’s son is D’s brother. How is Y related to C?
Solution: It has been clearlyindicated that Y is the brother of X, X’s son is D’s brother. This implies thatD is the daughter of X. Since C and D are sisters, C is also the daughter of X.So Y is the uncle of C.

Example No. 8: M and N are a marriedcouple. O and P are brothers. O is the brother of M. How is P related to N?
Solution: Mand N are husband and wife. Since O and P are brothers, and O is the brother ofM, P is also the brother of M.Thus, P is the brother-in-law of N.

Example No. 9: A family consists of 5members P, Q, R, S and T. The last one (T) has two sons, an unmarried daughterand a daughter in law. P is the brother-in-law of the above mentioneddaughter-in-law. Q’s sister is not happy with Q’s wife. But P and his fathersupport Q’s wife ‘S’. Who is the daughter of T?
Solution: In this question, ithas been clearly mentioned that T is having 2 sons, 1 daughter and a daughterin law. Now if P is the brother in law of the daughter-in-law of T means P isthe son of T. Secondly if Q’s sister is not happy with Q’s wife implies theother son of T is Q and lastly it has been mentioned that Q’s wife is S. So theonly remaining character is T’s daughter and the only remaining name is R. ThusR is the daughter of T.

Example No. 9(a): What is the relationof P with S?
Solution: Now it has already beenseen that P is the unmarried son of T and S is the daughter-in-law of T. So Pis the brother-in-law of S.

Example No. 9 (b): How is T related to Q?
Solution: It has already been decidedthat T is father of Q.

Example No. 9 {c} : Who is the wife of Q?
Solution: It is clear that thewife of Q is S.

Example No. 10: A is brother of B, Cis the father of A, D is a brother of E, E is a daughter of B. Who is the uncleof D?
Solution
It can be seen from the diagram that theuncle of D is A.

SENTENCE IMPROVEMENT MCQ EXERCISES WITH EXPLANATIONS

Read the following sentences and select the option that corrects the underlined sections. If the sentences sections are correct as written, choose option A.

1. If the books have been cataloged last week, why haven't they been placed on the shelf?
A. have been cataloged 
B. would have been cataloged 
C. was cataloged 
D. were cataloged 
E. had been cataloged
2. Jessica Mitford wrote The American Way of Death, a best-selling book that led eventually to an official investigation of the funeral industry.
A. that led eventually 
B. that had led eventually 
C. that eventually led 
D. which eventually led 
E. who eventually led
3. Sabotage came from the French saboterwhich means "to clatter with wooden shoes (sabots)."
A. which means "to 
B. which means, "to 
C. that means "to 
D. that means-"to 
E. that means, "to
4. When studying an assignment, it is wise to read it over quickly at first, than see the major points, and finally outline the material.
A. first, than 
B. first: then 
C. first-then 
D. first, then 
E. first-than
5. To judge the Tidy City contest, we picked an uninterested party.
A. picked an uninterested party. 
B. picked an interested party! 
C. picked a disinterested party. 
D. are in the process of picking an uninterested party. 
E. picked an disinterested party.
6. Linda decides they had better scram before the killers find them.
A. had better scram 
B. had better leave 
C. should hurry and scram 
D. could hurry and leave 
E. had better get out
7. I really dug the character of Brutus.
A. dug 
B. thought about 
C. thought of 
D. admired 
E. gazed at
8. Once upon a point a time, a small person named Little Red Riding Hood initiated plans for the preparation, delivery and transportation of foodstuffs to her Grandmother.
A. and transportation of foodstuffs to her Grandmother. 
B. and transportation of food stuffs to her Grandmother. 
C. and transportation of food supplies to her Grandmother. 
D. and transportation of foodstuffs to her grandmother. 
E. and, transportation of food supplies to her grand mother.
9. The setting of a story effects the story's plot.
A. effects the story's plot. 
B. effects the stories plot. 
C. affect the story's plot. 
D. affects the story's plot. 
E. affects the story's plots.
10. Arctic trees are scrubbiest than trees in milder climates.
A. scrubbiest than trees 
B. scrubbier then trees 
C. scrubbiest than are trees 
D. scrubbier than are trees 
E. scrubbier than trees
11. Quebec rises in a magnificent way above the St. Lawrence River.
A. rises in a magnificent way above 
B. rises in a magnificent way, way above 
C. rises magnificently above 
D. rises magnificently way above 
E. is raised in a magnificent way above
12. Someone gives the school gerbils every year.
A. Someone gives the school gerbils 
B. Some one gives the school gerbils 
C. Some one gives the School gerbils 
D. There is a person that gives the school gerbils 
E. An individual gave gerbils
13. During colonial days, a school room looked rather empty.
A. colonial days, a school room looked 
B. colonial days, a schoolroom looked 
C. colonial days; a schoolroom looked 
D. colonial days; a school room looked 
E. colonial days-a schoolroom looked
14. The helium-filled balloon rose in the air.
A. rose in the air. 
B. was rising in the air. 
C. was in the air. 
D. rose into the air. 
E. would rise in the air.
15. If I had the address, I would have delivered the package myself.
A. had the address, 
B. had the address; 
C. had the address- 
D. had had the address; 
E. had had the address,
16. Do you know that these gloves have lay on the bureau all week?
A. have lay on 
B. have laid on 
C. would lie on 
D. had laid on 
E. have lain on
17. If I would have known about the team tryouts, I would have signed up for them.
A. had known 
B. would have known 
C. could of known 
D. had been told 
E. could have been told
18. If he would have revised his first draft, he would have received a better grade.
A. would have revised 
B. had revised 
C. could of revised 
D. had of revised 
E. would revise
19. Valarie claims that cats made the best pets.
A. made the best pets. 
B. could be the best pets. 
C. are the best pets. 
D. make of the best pets. 
E. make the best pets.
20. By next month, Ms. Jones will be Mayor of Tallahassee for two years.
A. will be Mayor of Tallahassee 
B. will have been Mayor of Tallahassee 
C. will be mayor of Tallahassee 
D. will have been mayor of Tallahassee 
E. could have been mayor of Tallahassee

Answers and Explanations

1. D: "Last week" dictates simple past tense "were." Present perfect "have been" (A) refers to the status now of something already accomplished in the past-e.g. "have been cataloged since last week." Subjunctive present perfect "would have been" (B) is never used in a conditional "If" clause/phrase, only as its complement ("If..., then they would..."). Singular "was" (C) disagrees with plural "books." Past perfect "had been" (E) would require "why hadn't they been.../weren't they...?" to agree.
2. C: With an indirect object, the transitive verb and preposition should be a unit, i.e. "led to" here, like "take from," "give to," etc., uninterrupted by the modifying adverb "eventually." "Who" (E) only applies to people, not inanimate objects like books.
3. A: No punctuation should be placed between "means" and "to" here. Hence a comma [(B), (E)] or dash (D) is incorrect. A nonrestrictive relative clause introduces additional information, requiring a comma and "which"-not "that" [(C), (D), and (E)]. "That" is used without a comma and only with a restrictive relative clause, i.e. one that is necessary to understand the meaning of the noun it modifies.
4. D: "Then" is an adverb indicating time or sequence here. "Than" [(A), (E)] is a conjunction indicating comparison, e.g. "He is taller than I am" or "We would rather go now than later." When listing three sequential steps as in this sentence, the comma after the first and second steps is correct punctuation; a colon (B) or hyphen [(C), (E)] is incorrect.
5. C: The correct word choice therefore, for this sentence meaning is "disinterested," meaning not personally involved or invested and (presumably) impartial. "Uninterested" means literally not interested, i.e. oblivious or not caring. In this context, they would not pick an "interested" party to judge a contest, and the exclamation mark (B) is inappropriate punctuation. "An" (E) is incorrect preceding a consonant.
6. B: "Scram" is a slang word meaning "leave," a more acceptable choice when writing (excepting intentional slang like Mark Twain used in dialogue, narrative, etc.). "Could" (D) means they can leave, whereas "had better" and "should" means they ought to leave. "Get out" (E), similarly to "scram," is less acceptable than "leave."
7. D: "Admired" is an acceptable word in writing for the desired meaning, whereas "dug" (A) is slang. "Thought about (B), "thought of" (C), and "gazed at" (E) do not convey the same meaning at all.
8. D: When used as a noun rather than a name (proper noun), "grandmother" is not capitalized. Used either way, it is still one word, not two (E); the same is true of "foodstuffs" (B).
9. D: To affect means to influence. This meaning, and hence this spelling, apply here. To effect [(A), (B)] means to cause, initiate, create, implement, or accomplish. "Stories" (B) is plural, not possessive. "Affect" (C) goes with a plural, not singular, subject. "Plots" (E) is plural, not singular.
10. E: When comparing two things, the comparative "-er" is used rather than the superlative "-est," which is only used when comparing more than two things. The adverb "than" is used with the comparative, not the conjunction "then" (B), which indicates time sequence (e.g. "and then..."), cause and effect (e.g. "If...,then..."). Adding "are" (D) is unnecessary.
11. C: The adverb "magnificently" modifies the verb "rises" and reads more appropriately and concisely than the phrase "in a magnificent way." "Way above" [(B), (C)] is slangy and does not express the intended meaning. If it did, "far above" would be more correct. Passive-voice "is raised" (E) connotes a different meaning (i.e. is set higher) than active-voice "rises" (i.e. appears) in this sentence.
12. A: "Someone" is one word, not two [(B), (C)]. "There is a person that" (D) differs semantically and grammatically, meaning someone exists who gives the school gerbils rather than someone gives the school gerbils; also, "who" is preferable over "that" when referring to people. The meaning is changed by past tense "gave" (E); i.e. an individual/someone gave the school gerbils every year but no longer does, vs. someone still gives the school gerbils every year.
13. B: "Schoolroom" is one word, not two [(A), (D)]. A semicolon separates independent clauses or phrases containing internal commas, but is incorrect between a phrase and a clause [(C), (D)]. A comma, not a dash (E), is used between the introductory prepositional phrase and the independent clause it modifies.
14. D: The correct preposition with verbs expressing movement or placement is "into," not "in" [(A), (B), (C), (E)], a common error. We place something into a container, not in it; things move into the air, not in it. "In" denotes something is already there rather than moving/being moved there.
15. E: Since this entire conditional-subjunctive sentence construction is in the past, the correct conditional form is past perfect "If I had had" rather than present perfect "if I had" [(A), (B), (C)] with the present perfect subjunctive "I would have." The correct punctuation between conditional "if" and subjunctive "would" parts is always a comma, never a semicolon [(B), (D)] or a dash (C).
16. E: The present perfect intransitive "to lie" is "have lain," not "have lay" (A), "have laid" (B), or "had laid" (D), which latter two are only transitive, e.g. "She has laid the gloves on the bureau every day" or "I saw a pair of gloves she had laid on the bureau." The conditional "would lie" (C) is only grammatical with a conditional, e.g. "...would lie on the bureau all week unless you moved them," also conveying a different meaning.
17. A: Conditional-subjunctive ("If...then") constructions set in the past use past perfect ("If I had known") for the conditional, and present perfect ("I would have signed up") for the subjunctive, because "If" comes earlier and "then" later. Adding the subjunctive "would"/"could" to the conditional as well (B) is incorrect. Substituting the preposition "of" for the auxiliary verb "have" (C) is always incorrect. "Had been/could have been told" [(C), (D)] differs in meaning from "had known."
18. B: With conditional-subjunctive constructions, never add the subjunctive auxiliary verb (would/could/would have/could have) to the conditional (If) half [(A), (C), (E)]; it is only used in the subjunctive half. It is never correct to substitute the preposition "of" for the auxiliary verb "have" [(C), (D)].
19. E: To agree with the present-tense predicate "claims," the dependent clause must also be present-tense "make," not "made" (A). "Could be" (B) and "are" (C) alter the sentence meaning. "Make of" (D) is not a valid construction in this sentence structure, makes no sense, and means nothing.
20. D: "By next month" used together with "for two years" indicates something that will be completed in the future, so future perfect "will have been" is the correct tense. "Will be" [(A), (C)] means she will be mayor for two years beginning in the future. Moreover, "Mayor" [(A), (B)] is incorrectly capitalized: it is not used as a title/name here (like "Mayor Jones"). "Could have been" (E) changes the meaning.

ONE WORD ANSWERS ON SBI PO IBPS PO COMPUTER APTITUDE AWARENESS

1. A compiler is used to translate a program written in:-A high level language
2. In programming we use ___ keys:- Arrow keys
3. One nibble is = 4 bits
4. The resolution of a monitor is measured in: - DPI (Dot per Inch)
5. Which software allows users to perform calculations on rows and columns of Data: - database management systems
6. A _____ represents approx. one billion memory locations: - GB
7. Which cells involves creating a single cell by combining two or more selected cells: - Merging
8. A data warehouse: - is organized around important subject areas
9. ____ servers store & manage files for network users: - FILE
10. An output device that uses words or massages recorded on a magnetic medium to produce audio response is :- Magnetic tape
11. What will happen when data is entered into a memory location:- it will erase the previous content
12. A storage area used to store data to compensate for the difference in speed at which the different units can handle data is :- Buffer
13. Ctrl, Shift, alt are called _____ Keys:- Modifier
14. What is the permanent memory built into your computer: - ROM
15. The memory which is utmost accessible to the processor is :- cache Memory
16. To move to the beginning of a line or text press ____ key:- HOME
17. For creating a Document we use which command at file menu:- New
18. Which memory has the shortest access time :- cache memory
19. A 32 bit microprocessor has the word length equal to :- 4 byte
20. ________ tags when placed on an animal can be used to record and track in a database all of the animal’s movement:- RFID
21. A set of information that defines the status of resources allocated to a process is:- Process description
22. Any method for controlling access to or use of memory is known as: - Memory Protection
23. Software applies ______ also called as algorithms to process data: - Arithmetic
24. A file extension is separated from the main file name with a/an _____ but no space: - ???
25. An ad hoc query is a: - pre scheduled question
26. An interrupt handler is a: - special numeric code that indicates the priority of a request
27. A spooler is: - a program that coordinates the print jobs that are waiting to be printed
28. Virtual memory is typically located: - on the hard drive
29. The purpose of a swap (or Page) file is to: - hold a program’s data or instructions in virtual memory when it cannot be fitted in RAM
30. The definition of thrashing is: - Swapping data between virtual memory and RAM too frequently
31. Which protocol is used by an operating system to generate error message like “HOST UNREACHABLE” over a TCP/IP network: - ICMP
32. SNMP stands for: - Simple Network Management Protocol
33. ______ are Linux boot loader: - LILO, GRUB
34. ___________ terminals (formerly known as cash registers) are often connected to computer inventory and sales computer system: - POS (Point of sale)
35. A ________ is a small program that helps to automate a frequently used series of commands in most productivity software tools: - macro
36. Multithread means: - One program doing more than one thing at a time
37. The 4 main functions of a computer are: - Input, Processing, Output, & Storage
38. What menu is selected to change the font and style: - format
39. The field that investigates the mechanics of human intelligence is: - Cognitive science
40. A “C” data structure called a structure is a group of a items in which each item is indentified by its own identifier each of which is known as a member of a structure. The member is also known as :- field
41. SONET is used: - ????
42. The OSI model is divided into _______ processes called layers : - 7
43. System software is the set of programs that enables your computer’s hardware devices and ______ software to work together: - application
44. The altering of data so that it is not usable unless the changes are undone is known as :- Encryption
45. A voice mail: - functions much like an answering machine allowing callers to leave a voice message for the called party
46. A communication processor that connects dissimilar networks by providing translation from one set of protocol to another is known as: - Gateway
47. In MS-Excel 2003 the default workbook sheet contains maximum ______ rows: - 65536
48. In MS-word a menu item in dim colour (gray) indicates that the menu is: - unavailable for current context
49. Hot key is a: - Keyboard shortcut
50. A group of attribute/field in a database is known as a _____ :- Record

ALL SBI PO IBPS PO COMPUTER AWARENESS APTITUDE ABBREVIATIONS

ACE: Access Control Entry
ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
AGP: Accelerated Graphics Port
AI: Artificial Intelligence
ALGOL: Algorithmic Language
ALU: Arithmetic Logic Unit
ANSI: American National Standards Institute
API: Application Program Interface
APIPA: Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing
APT: Automatically Programmed Tooling
ARP: Address Resolution Protocol
ARPANET: Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
ASCII: American Standard Code For Information Interchange
ASF: Advanced Streaming Format
ASP: Active Server Pages
ATAPI: Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface
ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AUI: Attachment Unit Interface
AVI: Audio Video Interleave
BASIC: Beginner`s All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
BCD: Binary Coded Decimal
BDPS:: Business Data Processing Systems
BHTML: Broadcast Hyper Text Markup Language
BIOS: Basic Input Output System
BIU: Bus Interface Unit
BMP: Bitmap
BPS: Bytes Per Seconds
C-DAC: Centre For Development Of Advanced Computing
CAD: Computer Aided Design
CADD: Computer Added Drafting And Design
CAI: Computer Aided Instructuion
CAM: Computer Aided Manufacturing
CAR: Control Address Register
CASE: Computer Aided Software Engineering
CCIS: Common Channel Interoffice Signaling
CCNA: Cisco Certified Network Associate
CD: Compact Disc
CD RW: Compact Disc ReWritable
CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access
CDROM: Compact Disc Read Only Memory
CFG: Control Flow Graph
CGI: Common Gateway Interface
CGM: Computer Graphics Metafile
CIDR: Classless InterDomain Routing
CIM: Computer Integrated Manufacture
CISC: Complex Instruction Set Computers
CIX: Commercial Internet Exchange
CLR: Common Language Runtime
CMOS: Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
CMS: Content Management System
CMYK: Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Key (Black)
COBOL: Common Business Oriented Language
CORBA: Common Object Request Broker Architecture
CPI: Clock Cycle Per Instruction
CPU: Central Processing Unit
CRC: Cyclic Redundancy Check
CRM: Customer Relationship Management
CROM: Control Read Only Memory
CRT: Cathode Ray Tube
CUI: Character User Interface
DAC: Digital To Analog Converter
DAO: Data Access Objects
DARPANET: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
DBA: Data Base Administrator
DBMS: Data Base Management System
DCA: Defence Communication Agency
DCL: Data Control Language
DCOM: Distributed Component Object Model
DCP: Data Communication Processor
DDL: Data Definition Language
DDOS: Distributed Denial Of Service
DDP: Distributed Data Processing
DFD: Data Flow Diagram
DFS: Distributed File System
DHCP: Dynamic Host Control Protocol
DHTML: Dynamics Hyper Text Markup Language
DLC: Data Link Control
DLL: Dynamic Link Library
DMA: Direct Memory Access
DML: Data Manipulation Language
DMTF: Distributed Management Test Force
DNA: Distributed Internet Architecture
DNS: Domain Name System (Server)
DOM: Document Object Model
DOS: Disk Operating System, Denial Of Service
DPI: Dots Per Inch
DRAM: Dynamic Random Access Memory
DSL: Digital Subscriber Line
DSN: Digital Subscriber Network
DTD: Document Type Definition
DVD: Digital Versatile Disc
E: Electronic
EAROM: Electrically Alterable Read Only Memory
EBCDIC: Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
EDC: Electronic Digital Computer
EDCDIC: Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
EEPROM: Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
EFS: Encrypted File System
EJB: Enterprise Java Beans
ENIAC: Electronics Numerical Integrator And Calculator
EPROM: Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
EROM: Erasable Read Only Memory
ERP: Enterprise Resource Planning
EULA: End User License Agreement
FAT: File Allocation Table
FDD: Floppy Disk Drive
FDDI: Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple Access
FIFO: First In First Out
FLOPS: Floating Point Operations Per Second
FO: Fiber Optics
FORTRAN: Formula Translation
FPS: Frames Per Second
FRAM: Ferro Electric Random Access Memory
FTP: File Transfer Protocol
GB: Giga Bytes
GIF: Graphic Interchange Format
GIGO: Garbage In Garbage Out
GML: General Markup Language
GPL: General Public License
GUI: Graphical User Interface
HDD: Hard Disk Drive
HFS: Hierarchical File System
HP: Hewlett Packard
HPC: High Performance Computing
HPFS: High Performance File System
HSR: Horizontal Scan Rate
HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language
HTTP: Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
IO: Input Output
IBM: International Business Machines
IC: Integrated Circuit
ICMP: Internet Control Message Protocol
ICS: Reduce Instruction Set Computer
ICT: Information And Communication Technology
IDE: Integrated Development Environment
IE: Internet Explorer
IGMP: Internet Group Management Protocol
IL: Intermediate Language
IOP: InputOutput Processor
IP: Internet Protocol
IPX: Internetworked Packet Exchange
IRAM: Integration Ram
IRC: Internet Relay Chat
IRDA: Infrared Data Association
IRQ: Interrupt Request
ISAPI: Internet Server Application Program Interface
ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network
ISO: International Standard Organization
ISP: Internet Service Provider
ISR: Interrupt Service Routine
IT: Information Technology
ITPL: Information Technology Park Limited (India)
JCL: Job Control Language
JDBC: Java Data Base Connectivity
JHTML: Java Within Hyper Text Markup Language
JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group
JSP: Java Server Pages
KB: Kilo Bytes
KBPS: Kilo Bytes Per Second
L2TP: Layer Two Tunneling Protocol
LAN: Local Area Network
LCD: Liquid Crystal Display
LDAP: Light Weight Directory Access Control
LIFO: Last In First Out
LIPS: Logical Interfaces Per Second
LOC: Lines Of Code
LSI: Large Scale Integration
LSP: Layered Service Provider
MAC: Media Access Control
MAN: Metropolitan Area Network
MAU: MultiStation Access Unit
MB: Mega Bytes
MBONE: Multicast Backbone
MBPS: Mega Bytes Per Second
MBR: Master Boot Record
MCP: Microsoft Certified Professional
MCS: Multicast Server
MDI: Multiple Document Interface
MDS: Microcomputer Development System
MFC: Microsoft Foundation Classes
MFT: Master File Table
MG: Mega Bytes
MICR: MagneticInk Characters Reader
MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface
MIMD: Multiple Instruction Multiple Data
MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
MIPS: Millions Of Instructions Per Second
MISD: Multiple Instruction Single Data
MODEM: Modulator And Demodulator
MP3: Motion Pictures Experts Group Layer 3
MPEG: Motion Pictures Experts Group
MS: Microsoft
MSDN: Microsoft Developer Network
MSIIS: Microsoft Internet Information Server
MSIL: Microsoft Intermediate Language
MSMQ: Microsoft Message Queue
MSN: Microsoft Network
MSRAP: Microsoft Remote Administration Protocol
MSRPC: Microsoft Remote Procedure Call
MTS: Microsoft Transaction Server
MTU: Maximum Transmission Unit
MUDS: MultiUser Dungeons
NAS: Network Attached Storage
NASSCOM: National Association Of Software & Service Companies
NCP: Network Control Protocol
NDIS: Network Driver Interface Specification
NDRO: Nondestructive Read Out
NETBEUI: Netbios Enhanced User Interface
NIC: National Informatics Centre,
NIIT: National Institute Of Information Technology
NNTP: Network News Transfer Protocol
NSFNET: National Science Foundation Network
NTFS: New Technology File System
NTP: Network Time Protocol
OCR: Optical Character Readers
ODBC: Open Data Base Connectivity
OLE: Object Linking And Embedding
OMR: Optical Mark Reader
ONE: Open Network Architecture
OOA: Object Orient Analysis
OOAD: Object Oriented Analysis And Design
OOP: Object Oriented Programming
OOPS: Object Oriented Programming System
OPEN GL: Open Graphics Library
OS: Operating System
OSI: Open System Interconnection
PC: Personal Computer
PCI: Peripheral Component Interconnect
PCMCIA: Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PDA: Personal Digital Assistant
PDF: Portable Document Format
PDL: Page Description Language
PDU: Protocol Data Unit
PIC: Programming Interrupt Control
PILOT: Programmed Inquiry Learning Or Teaching
PLA: Programmable Logic Array
PLC: Programmable Logic Controller
PNG: Portable Network Graphics
PNP: Plug And Play
PPP: Peer To Peer Protocol
PPTP: Point To Point Tunneling Protocol
PROM: Programmable Read Only Memory
PS: Post Script
RADSL: RateAdaptive Digital Subscribes Line
RAID: Redundant Array Of Independent Disks
RAM: Random Access Memory
RAMDAC: Random Access Memory Digital To Analog Converter
RAS: Remote Access Network
RD RAM: Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory
RDBMS: Relational Data Base Management System
RDO: Remote Data Objects
RDP: Remote Desktop Protocol
RFC: Request For Comments
RGB: Red Green Blue
RICS: Reduced Instruction Set Computer
RIP: Raster Image Processor
RISC: Reduced Instruction Set Computer
ROM: Read Only Memory
RPC: Remote Procedure Call
RTC: Real Time Clock
RTF: Rich Text Format
RTOS: Real Time Operating System
SACK: Selective Acknowledgements
SAM: Security Access Manager
SAP: Service Access Point, Systems Applications Products
SCMP: Software Configuration Management Plan
SD RAM: Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
SDD: Software Design Description
SDK: Software Development Kit
SDL: Storage Definition Language
SDN: Integrated Service Digital Network
SDRAM: Static Dynamic Random Access Memory
SDSL: Symmetric Digital Subscribes Line
SG RAM: Synchronous Graphics Random Access Memory
SGML: Standard Generalized Markup Language
SIM: Subscriber Identification Module
SIMD: Single Instruction Multiple Data
SISD: Single Instruction Single Data
SIU: Serial Interface Unit
SMP: Symmetric MultiProcess
SMS: Short Message Service
SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SNA: System Network Architecture
SNAP: Sub Network Access Protocol
SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol
SNOBOL: String Oriented Symbolic Language
SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol
SPX: Sequenced Packet Exchange
SQA: Statistical Quality Assurance
SQL: Structured Query Language
SRAM: Static Random Access Memory
SRS: Software Requirements Specification
STP: Shielded Twisted Pair
SVVP: Software Verification And Validation Plan
SW: Software
TAPI: Telephony Application Program Interface
TB: Tera Bytes
TCP: Transmission Control Protocol
TCPIP: Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol
TDI: Transport Data Interface
TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access
TPM: Transactions Processing Monitor
TSR: Terminate And Stay Residents
UDD: User Datagram Protocol
UDP: User Datagram Protocol
UI: User Interface
UML: Unified Modelling Language
UNC: Universal Naming Convention
UNIX: Uniplexed Information And Computer Systems
URL: Universal Resource Locator
USB: Universal Serial Bus
USRT: Universal Synchronous Receiver Transmitted
UTP: Unshielded Twisted Pair
VAN: Virtual Area Network
VAST: Very Small Aperture Terminal
VB: Visual Basic
VC++: Visual C++
VCD: Video Compact Disc
VDL: View Definition Language
VGA: Video Graphics Array
VHS: Video Home System
VLIW: Very Long Instruction Words
VLSI: Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits
VPN: Virtual Private Network
VRAM: Video Random Access Memory
VRML: Virtual Reality Modelling Language
VS: Visual Studio
VSNL: Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited
VVR: Software Validation And Validation Report
VXD: Virtual Device Driver
WWWC: World Wide Web Consortium
WAIS: Wide Area Information Servers
WAN: Wide Area Network
WAP: Wireless Application Protocol
WBEM: WebBase Enterprise Management
WDM: Wave Division Multiplexing
WHQL: Windows Hardware Quality Lab
WINDOWS ME: Windows Millennium Edition
WINDOWS NT: Windows New Technology
WINDOWS XP: Windows Experienced
WINS: Windows Internet Name Service
WMI: Windows Management Instrumentation
WML: Wireless Markup Language
WORM: Write Once Read Many
WSH: Windows Script Host
WWW: World Wide Web
WYSIWYG: What You See Is What You Get
XHTML: Extensible Hyper Text Markup Language
XML: Extensible Markup Language
XSL: Extensible Style Sheet Langauge
Y2K: Year 2000


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